Tokugawa Centralized Feudal Order in Japan – Selçuk Esenbel


Political Unification of Japan in the Sixteenth Century

Demise of national authority of Shoguns

Military Ruler Oda Nobunaga (1534-1582) conflict with Buddhism.  Fire and Destruction of Mt. Hiei Monasteries Massacre of Buddhist clergy.

Arrival of European Christians St. Francis Xavier, 1549

 Military Ruler Toyotomi Hideyoshi  (1536-1598) Ban of Christianity 1587, Failure to Conquer China and Korea 1592

Cadastral Survey of Agricultural Land,   Population Census for  Registration of Tax Payer Peasants 1588-, Sword Hunt (De-armament of Peasants) Removal of Samurai from Countryside 1588

Tokugawa Period  1600-1867

Sekigahara Battle, Victory of Tokugawa Ieyasu 1600

Tokugawa Shogun, Bakufu national government, Great Lords Daimyo domain governments  Han (tozama Outer Lords/fudai Inner Lords), Political Power of Bakufu over Daimyo  Han. Monopoly to mint metal currency, control of imperial highways, regulation of marriages, restriction on repairs of castles and size of samurai military force and arms. “Centralized Feudalism”

Sankinkotai , Forced 6 month Attendance to Shogun’s Palace in Edo City, Headquarters of Bakufu government (Today’s Tokyo)

Sakoku,  Closed Country/Isolation as Foreign Policy  1639

Ban of Buying and Selling of Land 1673

Bukeshohatto  Code, Freezing of Social Status of population to Samurai, Peasant, Artisan, Merchant in order of Social hierarchy.  Status of Emperor/Imperial Family and  Kyoto aristocracy Kuge,  Eta/Himin Untouchable Class of sub-humans.

Tokugawa Yoshimune 1716 early Reforms, Partial liberalization of total ban on studying Christian works.

1720 Founding of Bakufu Translation Bureau with  Freedom to study Western books  except the Bible.

Rise of urban culture in Edo, Osaka, Ukiyoe Prints, Kabuki  Commoner Theater, Poet Basho Haiku Poems, Play Writer Chikamatsu Monzaemon and Essayist Saikaku.

Growth of Market Economy and Monetary Finance/Roots of Japanese  Rural Capital

Dutch Studies/Rangaku School

1792 on Pressure of Russian and British Vessels Challenging Isolation Policy

1853 Commodore Matthew Perry of the US Navy with 4 Ships (The Black Ships) force Shogun to end Sakoku Isolation Policy

Japan signs Capitulation Treaties (Unequal Treaty System) start diplomatic and commercial relations with the  Western Powers

Political Upheaval of Loyalist Samurai Rebels, Slogan Sonno-Joi (Revere the Emperor/Throw out the Barbarian), Economic Crisis, Attack on Foreigners,  Revolt of Satsuma/Choshu/Tosa/Hizen Domains.  Brief Conflict with British Ships, Tokugawa Shogun Resignation, Civil War.

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